In fluorescence microscopy, fluorescent substances are excited with light of a specific wavelength. These substances emit light of a different wavelength which is separated from the excitation light by color filters and detected. By the variation of the fluorescence intensity, very small structures can be resolved. Several types of microscopes use this technique.
Fluorescence microscopy uses samples whose structures to be examined fluoresce. Some samples fluoresce by themselves (autofluorescence), whereas most samples use dyes that bind to the structure of interest. Thus, with different dyes in a sample, different structures can be stained and visualized differently. This makes fluorescence microscopy a superior technique for biological samples, as they often have structures that are not visible with a light microscope.
The main techniques for fluorescence microscopy are light sheet microscopy, confocal microscopy and two-photon microscopy. In addition, there are many other techniques, such as STED microscopy or structured illumination that achieve increased resolution.
The many different types of fluorescence microscopy, however, can be reduced to a common denominator in their structure. The sample is excited with a laser or a lamp and brought into a fluorescent state. The fluorescent light is then separated from the excitation light by dichroic mirrors or bandpass filters, and detected by a camera or photomultiplier. Of course, this describes only a very simple setup. There are no limits to the complexity and many other components such as lenses, mirrors and scanners are used to achieve the best possible results. We are happy to assist you with the construction of your microscope.