Biophotonics is a collective term for all applications that deal with the interaction of light with organic tissue or make use of this interaction. Important applications in this field are biomedical imaging and laser medicine.
Biophotonics can be roughly divided into two areas. One large field is made up of imaging techniques in which fluorescence of biomarkers in particular is exploited to achieve the highest possible resolution with laser scanning microscopy. This includes, for example, confocal microscopy or multiphoton microscopy.
The second area uses light as a tool. Optical tweezers can be used to precisely hold and move the smallest cells. In optogenetics, on the other hand, light is used to control cellular activity, which provides a lot of information about the functionality of neuronal circuits in our brain. Surgery also benefits from light-based technology. Thanks to femtosecond lasers with high pulse energies used as laser scalpels, minimally invasive incisions are possible, especially in ophthalmology.